Preformacionismo biológico y religioso en movimientos sociales y políticos

Contenido principal del artículo

Tiago Rama Folco

Resumen

El objetivo de este ensayo es analizar cómo confluyen en una misma base teórica tres discursos de diferentes áreas. Uno de ellos es la ciencia, mediante el genocentrismo defendido en la síntesis moderna en Biología. Otro es el de la religión, mediante la perspectiva finalista del alma y del diseño divino, que comparten las religiones abrahámicas. Y finalmente, en la esfera político-social, donde diferentes movimientos conservadores se oponen a replantear la agenda de derechos. La confluencia teórica que nuclea a las tres áreas mencionadas es un preformismo sobre los organismos. Por lo tanto, primero, veremos cómo el preformismo se encuentra presente en biología. Segundo, señalaremos dos ideas relacionadas al preformismo que subyacen tanto en la biología como en la religión. Finalmente, analizaremos cómo ambos discursos, el científico y el religioso, se encuentran presentes y empleando un rol argumentativo en debates actuales sobre derechos humanos, específicamente, relacionados al aborto y a los derechos de la población lgtbiq+. La principal conclusión es que la síntesis moderna promueve erróneamente una defensa de un preformismo genético, con connotaciones religiosas, que es usado por movimientos conservadores en el ámbito político-social.

Imagen de portada: Rey de copas / técnica mixta y collage sobre tablex (cm. 122 × 172) / Colección M. Saenz de Eredia; Madrid, España


Detalles del artículo

Sección
Dossier

Citas

AMUNDSON, R.(2000). Against Normal Function.Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences,31(1), 33-53
————— (2005). The Changing Role of the Embryo in Evolutionary Thought: Roots of Evo-Devo.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
APPEL, T. (1987). A. The Cuvier-Geoffroy debate: French biology in the decades before Darwin.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
AVITAL, E. y JABLONKA, E. (2001). Animal Traditions: Behavioural Inheritance in Evolution.Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.
AYALA, F.(2007). Darwin’s Greatest Discovery: Design without Designer.PNAS, 104(suppl 1),8567-8573.
CAMEZINE, S.;DENEUBOURG, J.-L.; FRANKS, N.;SNEYD, J.;THERAULAZ,G.y BONABEAU, E. (2001).Self-Organization in Biological Systems. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
CARROLL, S.;GRENIER, J. y WEATHERBEE, S. (2013). From DNAto Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design. John Wiley&Sons.
CRICK, F. (1958). On Protein Synthesis.Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, XII, 138-163.
—————(1970). Central Dogma of Molecular Biology.Nature,227(5258), 561-563.
DAWKINS, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene.Oxford:OxfordUniversity Press.
————— (1982).The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
DOBZHANSKY, TH.(1951). Genetics and the Origin of Species.Nueva York: Columbia University Press.
FUSCO, G. (2008). Evolving Pathways: Key Themes in Evolutionary Developmental Biology.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
FUTUYMA, D.(2017). Evolutionary Biology Today and the Call for an Extended Synthesis.Interface Focus,7(5).doi: 10.1098/rsfs.2016.0145
—————y KIRKPATRICK, M. (2017). Evolution.Sinauer [en línea], 4.ª ed. Recuperado de https://evolution4e.sinauer.com/.
GARDNER, A.(2009). Adaptation as OrganismDesign. Biology Letters,5(6), 861-864.doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2009.0674.
GILBERT, S.(2002). Genetic Determinism: The Battle BetweenScientific Data and Social Image in Contemporary Developmental Biology. En:A.GRUNWALD, M. GUTMANN yE.M. NEUMANN-HELD (Eds.). On Human Nature.Anthropological, Biological, and Philosophical Foundations(pp. 121-140). Heidelberg: Springer,.
————— (2003).Developmental Biology.SunderlandInauer Associates Inc., 7.ª ed. revisada.
————— y EPEL, D.(2009). Ecological Developmental Biology: Integrating Epigenetics, Medicine, and Evolution.Swarthmore:Sinauer Associates.
GISSIS, S.y JABLONKA, E.(Eds.) (2011). Transformations of Lamarckism: from Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology. Cambridge: MITPress.
GOTTLIEB, G.(2001). Individual Development and Evolution: The Genesis of Novel Behaviour.Nueva York: Psychology Press.
GOULD, S. (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory.Harvard: Harvard University Press.
————— yLEWONTIN, R.(1979). The Spandrels of San Marco and the PanglossianParadigm: ACritique of the AdaptationistProgramme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences, 205(1161), 581-598.
GRIFFITHS,P. y STOTZ, K. (2013). Genetics and Philosophy: An Introduction.Cambridge:Cambridge UniversityPress.
HALL, B. (1999). Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Dordrecht:Kluwer, 2.ª ed.
HUNEMAN, Ph. yWALSH, D.(Eds.).(2017). Challenging the Modern Synthesis: Adaptation, Development, and Inheritance.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
HUXLEY, J. (1942). Evolution: The Modern Synthesis.Londres: Allen & Unwin.
JABLONKA, E. y LAMB, M. (2005). Evolution in Four Dimensions: Genetic, Epigenetic, Behavioral, and Symbolic Variation in the History of Life. Cambridge: MITPress.
—————(2008). Soft Inheritance: Challenging the Modern Synthesis. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 31(2), 389-395.Recuperado de https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-47572008000300001.
KAUFFMAN, S. (1993).The Origins of Order: Self-organization and Selection in Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
KUO, Z. Y. (1976). The Dynamics of Behavior Development: An Epigenetic View. Nueva York: PlenumPress.
LALAND, K.;ULLER, T.; FELDMAN, M.; STERELNY, K.; MÜLLER, G.;MOCZEK, A.;JABLONKA, E. y ODLING-SMEE, J.(2015). The Extended Evolutionary Synthesis: its Structure, Assumptions and Predictions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,282(1813).doi: 10.1098/rspb.2015.1019
LEWONTIN, R. (1996). Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA. Nueva York: House of Anansi..
————— (2001). The Triple Helix: Gene, Organism, and Environment. Harvard:Harvard UniversityPress.
—————KAMIN, L.y ROSE, S. (1984). Not in our Genes Biology, Ideology, and Human Nature.Nueva York: PantheonBooks.
LOVE, A.(Ed.) (2015).Conceptual Change in Biology.Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives on Evolution and Development.Dordecht: Springer.
MAMELI, M.(2005). The Inheritance of Features.Biology and Philosophy,20(2-3), 365-399.
MAYR, E. (1942). Systematics and the Origin of Species.Nueva York: Columbia University Press.
—————(1961). Cause and Effect in Biology.Science,134(3489), 1501-1506.
————— y PROVINE, W.(Eds.) (1998).The Evolutionary Synthesis: Perspectives on the Unification of Biology. Harvard:Harvard UniversityPress.
MINELLI, A. (2003). The Development of Animal Form: Ontogeny, Morphology, and Evolution.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
MONOD, J. (1988). Chance and Necessity: An Essay on the Natural Philosophy of Modern Biology. Nueva York: Random House.
MOSS, L. (2004).What Genes can’t do.Cambridge:MITPress.
MÜLLER, G. y NEWMAN, S. (2003). Origination of Organismal form: The Forgotten Cause in Evolutionary Theory.Cambridge: MITPress.
ODLING-SMEE, J.;LALAND, K. y FELDMAN, M. (2013). Niche Construction: The Neglected Process in Evolution. Princeton:Princeton University Press.
PETERSON, E.(2011). The Excluded Philosophy of Evo-Devo?Revisiting CH Waddington’s Failed Attempt to Embed Alfred North Whitehead’s“organicism”in Evolutionary Biology.History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 33(3),301-320.Recuperado de https://www.jstor.org/stable/23335143?seq=1.
PIGLIUCCI, M. y MÜLLER, G. (Eds.)(2010).Evolution: The Extended Synthesis.Cambridge:MITPress.
RHEINBERGER, H.-J.YMÜLLER-WILLE, S. (2018). The Gene: From Genetics to Postgenomics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
REID, R. (2007). Biological Emergences.Evolution by Natural Experiment.Cambridge: MITPress.
ROSENBERG, A. (2008). Darwinian Reductionism: Or, how to Stop Worrying and Love Molecular Biology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
RUSE, M. (2003).Darwin and Design Does Evolution Have a Purpose?Harvard:Harvard University Press.
SARKAR, S. (2007).Molecular Models of Life: Philosophical Papers on Molecular Biology. Cambridge: MITPress.
SANTO TOMÁS, DE AQUINO (1989).Suma teológica, Ángel Martínez Casado et al(traducción).Madrid:Biblioteca de AutoresCristianos.
SCHMIDT-RHAESA, A.(2007). The Evolution of Organ Systems.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
SIMPSON, G. (1944). Tempo and Mode in Evolution.Nueva York: Columbia University Press.
SMITH, J. M. (1993).The Theory of Evolution.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
—————(2000). The Concept of Information in Biology.Philosophy of Science, 67(2), 177-194.
SULTAN, S. (2015).Organism and Environment: Ecological Development, Niche Construction, and Adaptation. Cambridge:Cambridge UniversityPress.
URUGUAY (2018). Ley Integral para Personas Trans. Recuperado de https://www.impo.com.uy/bases/leyes/19684-2018.
WADDINGTON, C. (1957). The Strategy oftheGenes.A Discussion of Some Aspects of Theoretical Biology.Londres:George Allen and Unwin.
WAGNER, G. (2014). Homology, Genes, and Evolutionary Innovation.Princeton:Princeton UniversityPress.
WALSH, D. (2015). Organisms, Agency, and Evolution.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
WATSON, J. YCRICK, F. (1953). The Structure of DNA.Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 18, 123-131.
WATERS, K.(2007). Causes that Make a Difference.The Journal of Philosophy,104 (11), 551-579.
WELCH, J.(2017). What’s Wrong with Evolutionary Biology?Biology &Philosophy, 32 (2), 263-279.
WEST-EBERHARD, M. J. (2003). Developmental Plasticity and Evolution.Oxford:Oxford University Press.
WILSON, E. (1975).Sociobiology: The New Synthesis.Harvard: Harvard University Press.
————— (1978).On Human Nature.Harvard:Harvard University Press.